Category Archives: Magnetic Fields

Magnetic Stimulation of Neural Tissue

When testing out designs for Mykro Dot LED earrings in the late 70s, I discovered that using a an earring wire to carry 1.7 Volts (20 ma) for a couple of hours a day was enough to cause the tissue around the earring piercing to thicken in three to five days. Not wanting to further expose myself to legal action, I opted for a less elegant solution for earrings.

A classmate asked me about stimulating the brain by using electromagnetic pulses as a possible thesis project.  I am all for pushing the limits of cybernetic technologiesX. The block diagram below is representative of interesting research.  Unless you are a budding sociopath testing EMF/EMP technology in its current state of development on yourself, people you know, or strangers, resonates as an extremely bad idea.

Click for a very interesting website on Bioelectromagnetism


Addendum: I just came across this site when researching Helmholtz coils that was all about magnetic healing (Mesmer, anyone?).   There may be something to this in the medical profession for treating Alzheimer’s.  But it still seems like a Radium cure to me.

Mystery at Clark Dry Lake

Exiled to the desert southwest in 2001, I would get lost once in a while… heck, often.

Anza-Borrego Desert, Terezakis 2004
Anza-Borrego Desert, Terezakis 2004

On one of these wanderings, I found a place that was hours away from any highway; among some of the most remote locations as I have ever experienced. Even in this area I discovered bits and pieces of wire, porcelain insulators, the detritus of man.

Clark Dry Lake, Anza Borrego Desert, California
Clark Dry Lake, Anza Borrego Desert, California
Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958
Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958
Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958
Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958

Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958

Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958
Clark Lake Antenna, circa 1958
Gathering, Peter Terezakis, Clark Dry Lake, California 2005
Gathering, Peter Terezakis and Allyson Green, Clark Dry Lake, California 2005



The maximum voltage V induced in a coil of wire whose wire turns intersect a changing magnetic field is given by:

V = A x N x dB/dT

V = generator output voltage (volts)
A = cross sectional area of the coil of radius r (A =πr² in meters²)
N = number of turns of wire in the coil
dB/dT = the rate of change of the magnetic field (Tesla / sec)

Voltage (V) generated by my construction is proportional to the strength of the magnets (M – tesla) and the rate at which they are spun (dM/dt tesla per sec), the area (A – m2) of the coil(s) and the number of turns of wire (N), so V = N x A x dM/dt so if you have N = 1000 turns, magnet surface strength (for 1 magnet) = 1 tesla, rate of turning = 5 turns a sec (so dM/dT = 5 tesla / sec), area A = 0.001m2 then V = 1000 x 0.001 x 5 = 5 V (peak).

The voltage induced in the coils will are an AC signal.

The Magnets used in this construction are rated by the manufacturer at 13,200 Gauss or 1.32 Tesla.  The magnetic strength of the earth (stronger at the poles, weaker at the equator) is measured in nano Teslas.

This conversion utility was useful.

Pendulum Power

Thinking about the first experiment in Jeff Feddersen’s Sustainable Energy class, I repeated (though not exactly) an experiment of Michael Faraday’s originally conducted in 1831.  

It was his observation that by varying a magnetic field over time, an electric field would be generated.  This phenomenon came to be known as the law of (electromagnetic) induction.   The two videos below use LEDs, a coil of wire, jumper wires, and a large magnet hanging on a string as a pendulum.[quicktime][/quicktime]
I have a few more eighteenth century concepts I would like to physically review in order to prepare for my midterm project.

I couldn’t quite do the math on the setup in the videos as I didn’t know the coil length. The voltage was pretty high – 7.5 – 8.1 Volts. As expected it was not enough power to be able to drive a small motor.

The next tests will use a capacitor.

Peter Terezakis
Tisch School of the Arts

Magnetic fields

Magnetic Fields

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The NASA computer animation illustrates the Earth’s space storm shield in action and shows our planet’s magnetic fields as a dynamic system.

The solar wind, a thin, high-velocity electrified gas, or plasma, blows constantly from the Sun at an average speed of 250 miles per second (400 kilometers/sec). In the animation this is represented as a stream of yellow particles flowing from the Sun. The solar wind impacts the Earth’s magnetic field, represented by the blue lines. As the solar wind flows past the Earth’s magnetic field, it generates enormous electric currents that heat Earth’s space storm shield, which is a layer within the ionosphere (Earth’s electrically charged outer atmosphere). Satellite observation has shown that this causes electrically charged oxygen atoms (oxygen ions) to be ejected from the ionosphere into space.

The expelled oxygen ions are represented by the green particle streams. The ejected oxygen ions gain tremendous speed as they leave the atmosphere, become trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field and ultimately encircle the Earth, where they form a billion-degree plasma cloud around the planet, represented by the red cloud. The blue doughnut shape represents the high-speed flow of these particles around the Earth.

The red ‘ring of fire’ around the Earth’s polar regions represents the contribution of the particles to the aurora (the northern and southern lights).

This is part of the mechanism by which earth is constantly bombarded by charged particles from the sun as we travel through space and time. It’s as if we are living our our lives on a component of an electrostatic generator whose scale defies comprehension.

Peter Terezakis
Tisch School of the Arts


What If…

Schumann Resonance - Earth as a Capacitor
What if we think of our planet as a spherical capacitor?

Two concentric plates, separated
by a dielectric, moving through
the volume of space.

Formula to determine the
capacitance of a sphere

Using this model, earth ground would be our planet, the insulating dielectric would be the atmosphere, and the second capacitive component (plate) would be the ionosphere.
Capacitors often arc/leak/discharge on the work bench:
An average bolt of negative lightning carries a current of 40 kA (kiloampreas) although some bolts can be up to 120 kA, and transfers a charge of 5 coulombs and 500 MJ

Which would mean that there should be a change in electrical potential as we leave earth ground/change observational altitude:

Alessandro Volta’s measurements of electrical potential above the earth. Confirmed in 1908

I know it’s more than a little whacky, and way over-simplified, but I keep thinking about the dynamic differences in electrical potential between moving bodies of air and earth ground as well as between the ionosphere and the earth.

Tesla patent 512340

I can’t help but wonder since there is enough electromotive force to operate an electroscope, bias a MOSFET, might there not be a way to construct an antenna to at least charge a battery, if not power a city, or the planet, using the power which surrounds us on a planetary and/or a cosmic scale?
Traveling through magnetic fieldsl
If the answers to these questions were easy, or already out there, Big Oil would be out of business, and they are not.

The scale and scope of this line of thinking is mind-boggling and very interesting to me. There is a  recurring common symmetry in Tesla’s drawings, NASA imagery, and models of basic physics which I find intellectually compelling and aesthetically satisfying.  How cool would it be to continually charge super-capacitors through a system of antennas, powering our cities and our homes, by the EMF naturally generated by nature?

Peter Terezakis
Tisch School of the Arts

Moving plate capacitive discharge photo from NASA